The name 'Keoladeo' is derived from the name of an ancient Hindu temple devoted to Lord Shiva in the sanctuary's central zone while the Hindi term 'Ghana' implies dense, thick areas of forest cover. The coverage area of this national park is 29 sq-kms. One of the finest bird parks in the world, Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary (Keoladeo Ghana or Bharatpur National Park) is a reserve that offers protection to faunal species as well. Nesting indigenous water- birds as well as migratory water birds and waterside birds, this sanctuary is also inhabited by Sambar, Chital, Nilgai and Boar.
At the beginning of this century, this lake was developed, and was divided into several portions. A system of small dams, dykes, sluice gates, etc., was created to control water level in different sections. This became the hunting preserve of the Bharatpur royalty, and one of the best duck - shooting wetlands in the world.
This spectacular bird sanctuary is historical in its own way. The Maharaja of Bharatpur is credited for its creation in 1890, though conservation was the last thing on his mind. He got a large area enclosed with embankments and further divided it with earthen dams called 'bunds' creating a large number of marshes and lakes. Thus, Bharatpur is mainly an artificial creation. The government banned the indiscriminate shooting of birds in 1965. Conservation efforts originally started by Dr. Salim Ali received a further impetus when the area was deemed a national park in March 1982. In 1985, Bharatpur was accepted as a World Heritage Site.
Main wildlife found are Sambar, Chital, Nilgai, Boar, Migratory Birds. The major attractions of tourists visiting the park are the numerous migratory birds, who come from as far away as Siberia and Central Asia and spend their winters in Bharatpur, before returning to their breeding grounds. Migratory birds at Bharatpur bird sanctuary include, several species of Siberian Cranes, Pelicans, Geese, Ducks, Eagles, Hawks, Shanks, Stints, Wagtails, Warblers, Wheatears, Flycatchers, Buntings, Larks and Pipits, etc.
Some 377 species have been spotted at Bharatpur Sanctuary, making it one of the most inviting destinations in the world for ornithologists, amateurs and nature lovers. Various species of indigenous water birds, waterside birds, migratory water birds, land migratory birds, and domestic land species are found here. There are approximately 56 different families of birds, of which the Passeriformes (156 species) and Charadriformes (56 species) dominate. One-third of birds at Bharatpur are migrants, many of whom spend their winters before returning to their breeding grounds in the Arctic and Central Asia.
The bird most popular among tourists and ornithologists is the Siberian crane. According to field experts, this bird is known to travel distances of up to 6,500 km migrating from the Ob River basin region (Aral mountains, Siberia). Conservationists are working hard to protect the Siberian crane species as they are on the verge of extinction. Apart from Feredunkenar in Iran, Bharatpur Sanctuary was the only place where the Siberian crane used to migrate. Last sigthing of siberian crane happened in 2001. The Siberian Cranes used to arrive in December and stay until early March. According to ornithologists, unlike its Indian counterpart the Siberian crane feeds on Cypress Rotents grass (an underground aquatic root). The intriguing fact was Siberian Cranes have a mixed diet of vegetation, fish and other small creatures back home, but they adopt a vegetarian diet during their stay in India.
The city center is a mere 3 km from the park and has its own fare share of oddities, bazaars and night markets that are definitely worth a visit. Also worth visiting is the Laxmi Vilas Palace that houses a museum. The city of Agra, which is just 55 km from Bharatpur, has one of the most magnificent monuments ever built-the romantic Taj Mahal, a veritable poem in stone built by the Mughal emperor Shahjahan.
Bharatpur national park is a bird watcher's paradise. Bird Watching Trips are very exciting. The park, with its rich Bio-geographic diversity, is home to more than 380 species of birds - about quarter of the total species found in the entire Indian subcontinent! It is Considered one of the true bird parks of the world. Migratory birds at Bharatpur bird sanctuary include, several species of Siberian Cranes, Pelicans, Geese, Ducks, Eagles, Hawks, Shanks, Stints, Wagtails, Warblers, Wheat ears, Flycatchers, Buntings, Larks and Pipits, etc. The numerous water bodies provide an ideal habitat for Ducks and Waders which are migratory. The park forms a natural crossroad and meeting ground for avian species from high altitude areas, plains and eastern and western regions. Because of this unique location, the bird population is Pretty high throughout the year, with winter visitors, summer visitors, altitudinal migrants, passage migrants and local migrants. The park is an avid bird watcher's destination.
There are well-defined forest trails, which can easily be covered on foot or on a cycle or you can also hire a rickshaw that are available on hire. Rickshaw pullers have been trained by the park management in bird watching and are quite knowledgeable. Boats are also available on hire. A early morning boat trip or a late evening one is quite a rewarding experience to check out the hidden surprises of Bharatpur.
Bharatpur National park is open throughout the year, still the ideal visiting months are from August-November for resident breeding birds and October- February for migrant birds.
During summers (April-June), the temperature ranges from 38°C to 45°C. The onset of monsoon (July-August) lowers the temperature to about 27°C. Winter (October-March) season peaks after Christmas with temperatures falling below 10°C. Ground fog in the winter persists rather erratically on unspecified periods in January.
The nearest airport is situated at Agra, which is 56-kms from Bharatpur.
Regular rail services connect Bharatpur with all the major cities of India such as Delhi, Mumbai, Jaipur and Agra. The Bharatpur railway station is 6-kms from the park.
An excellent network of roadway services connects Bharatpur to all the major cities of the Rajasthan and its neighboring states like Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana. Bharatpur is well connected by road from Agra (56-kms, 5 hours), Delhi (176-kms, 5 hours) and Jaipur (176-kms, 6 hours), all of which have airport facilities too.
Do not forget to carry a binoculars for watching the birds. Bird watching depend greatly on season, timing, and patience, so its better to visit the sanctuary during the visiting period.
Most tourists plan day long trips to Bharatpur. However, there is good accommodation available at the Bharatpur Forest Lodge, Forest Guest house and Saras Tourist Bungalow. All the three have multi-cuisine restaurants. Accommodation is also available at the Circuit House, Hotel Golbagh Palace, Shanti Kutir, and the Tourist Lodge near the sanctuary's Mathura gate.